Playbookis a sports term from USA meaning a book containing a sports team’s strategies and plays, especially in American football.  A negotiation playbook has the same concept.

Aspiration Point – what you hope to achieve, your goal in negotiation. Most desired outcome.

Reservation Point – what is the worst case scenario for you and the minimum that you would accept

Bargaining Chip – something of value that you trade with the other party

Concession – the act of giving a bargaining chip away

Strategyis an overarching plan of action designed to achieve your longer term aims

Tactics – are specific actions or methods you undertake to accomplish your strategy. Tactics are usually used to gain short-term advantage.

BATNA – a term coined by professors at Harvard University. It means Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement. Your BATNA is your fall back if you cannot reach an agreement with this party

Integrative Negotiation – both parties collaborate to create ” win-win” value for all

Distributive Negotiation –  both parties compete to win the most value

Framing – is how you create a favorable frame of reference with persuasive messaging to influence the other party

Anchoring – is  how you emphasize strong facts favorable to you at critical points during the negotiation process

Position – what the other party says they want, a demand

Interest – what the other party really needs. You have to uncover it with skillful observation and questioning

Trial Balloon – you float a trial balloon to test reaction to an idea or proposal.

Fait Accompli – a tactic used to tell the other party that something has been done and cannot be changed.

Nibble – a small value concession that a negotiator asks towards the conclusion of the negotiation.


To learn more about negotiation concepts, sign up for our negotiation training course in Singapore by clicking to this link: